Markus Romig

Interesting facts about HTML

HTML – Was ist das?

Die Abkürzung HTML steht für Hypertext Markup Language, was auf deutsch Hypertext Auszeichnungssprache bedeutet. Diese textbasierte Sprache dient zur Strukturierung elektronischer Dokumente, wie zum Beispiel Texte mit Hyperlinks oder Bildern. Die HTML-Dokumente werden von Webbrowsern dargestellt und sind die Grundlage des World Wide Web. HTML Dateien können neben den im Browser angezeigten Inhalten auch zusätzliche Angaben in Form von Medieninformationen enthalten. Das sind zum Beispiel die im Text verwendeten Sprachen, der Autor oder eine Zusammenfassung des Textes. Die Auszeichnungssprache. HTML dient allerdings nur zur systematischen Strukturierung eines Textes, nich aber zur Formatierung. HTML wurde vom World Wide Web Consortium entwickelt und 1992 zum ersten Mal veröffentlicht. Die Aktuelle Version nennt sich 5.2 und ist auf dem Stand vom 14. Dezember 2017.

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dns

Interesting facts about DNS and DDNS

DNS:

The abbreviation DNS stands for Domain Name System. DNS is a directory service, which is distributed worldwide on numerous servers and manages the name space of the Internet. This space can be divided into many zones, for which independent administrators are responsible. DNS is used to translate domain names into IP addresses, similar to the way a telephone directory assigns a telephone number to each name. This feature offers users a great simplification, as it is possible to simply remember the domain name such as tecomon.de, rather than the more complicated IP address such as 192.0.32.10.

Let's take a closer look at how DNS works with an example:

I want to call the website tecomon, my browser will request a DNS server, which is stored in the IP configuration. This IP configuration is usually the router of the Internet access. Now the queried DNS server looks for my request tecomon. If the DNS server finds an answer, the searched IP address is returned to my browser and I can visit the website. If no answer is found, the DNS server passes the query to a chain of other DNS servers until one DNS server can answer my query and deliver the IP address for the website tecomon to my browser.

DDNS:

Dynamic DNS, basically works the same way as the Domain Name System. However, DDNS has a special feature: through the dynamic Domain Name System, constantly changing IP addresses are always forwarded to a fixed domain name. This means that the computer is always reachable under this fixed domain, even if the current IP address is not known.

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Interesting facts about URL und URI

Things to know about URL and URI

URI - Uniform Resource Identifier

The World Wide Web can be understood as a space, which is populated by countless contents at different points. Each individual point can be uniquely identified by a URI, i.e. a URI designates a resource on the Internet. It does not matter whether this point represents a place in a text, a program, a video, an audio file, a moving or a still image. Example: Tecomon.de

URI should not be confused with Canton Uri in Switzerland.

URL - Uniform Resource Locator

A URL is generally understood as a web address that we enter into the browser or click on in the form of a link in order to access a certain web page. Behind the URL is an IP address, which is a prerequisite for the communication of the PC with a server. The URL is a subform of the URI, so to speak. Example: https://tecomon.de

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Interesting facts about HTTP requests

We call up web pages using the HTTP protocol, and the browser communicates with the web server. But how does this communication work?

The HTTP protocol regulates how clients (browsers) formulate requests and how servers respond to them. For this purpose, there are special request methods, so-called HTTP requests. The Unified Resource Identifier (URI) plays an important role here. URIs are used to designate resources on the Internet. A URI is the address of a website (resource). Example: tecomon.de. The associated URL in this case would be https://tecomon.de/.

Aufzählung der verschiedenen http-requests

GET and POST

The ancestor of HTTP requests is GET. It has existed since the beginning of the World Wide Web and is used to request files from the web server. When you enter a URL in your browser, it connects to the web server and sends it the GET request. A parameter (e.g. transferred form data), separated by a question mark, is added to the URI. An example would be "tecomon.de/index.php?suche=aktuelles". The data to be sent to the server is thus written directly into the URL. The advantage: URL parameters can be saved together with the website address and retrieved via the browsing history. Disadvantage: All data that you transmit is openly transmitted via the browser's address line.

However, when logging into a platform, we don't want our username and password to be publicly displayed in our browser's address bar. Therefore, if you want to send large or confidential amounts of data, the GET method is not ideal. That's why we have POST. This method does not write the parameters into the URL, but only into the HTTP request for the server. The data is not visible to the user. The POST method thus provides discretion and is important for handling sensitive data. The data is also not stored in the cache or in the browser history. However, this is also the disadvantage of POST. When a web page with a form is refreshed in the browser (e.g. when the "Back" button is pressed), the form data must be transmitted again. It can happen that unwanted duplicate orders are thus triggered for an order form. However, modern web store programs can prevent this.

Nowadays, GET is mostly used for filtering, sorting and searching inputs. POST, on the other hand, to transmit information and data from the user.

Other request methods

Apart from the two HTTP requests presented here, there are a number of other request methods. OPTIONS provides a list of supported HTTP methods of the server. TRACE can be used to follow routes through which an HTTP request goes to the server and from there back to the client. This way it can be checked if and how the request has been modified on its way to the server. This method is important for testing programs and troubleshooting. Through HEAD, clients can first be told the file sizes and then decide if they want to receive the file. Also, other information can be obtained in advance and the document contents can be checked. For example, the validity of a file. PUT, PATCH and DELETE, are used to save, modify or delete files on the server. For security reasons, servers usually block these methods. Therefore, they hardly play a role in normal website programming. PUT, PATCH and DELETE are used in the WebDAV context and in connection with the REST API.

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Interesting facts about Cookies

Cookies - Important part of the user-friendly Internet.

Cookies are data packets exchanged between computer programs. Originally, it was used to refer to all generic data packets exchanged between computer applications. Nowadays, by cookies we usually mean http cookies.

HTTP is a stateless protocol that does not store any session data. We have already explained this in our knowledge section. So with HTTP, browsers receive a new copy of the web page from the servers every time a web page is requested. However, these data copies make our everyday life more difficult. That's why today we explain how cookies make our lives easier.

What is the main purpose of cookies?

Websites generate cookies and thus store individual user data, both locally and on the server side. This data storage has a noticeable effect on the user, it ensures a user-friendly Internet. The first time a website is accessed, a new cookie is created, which collects the information that can be collected by the website operator. The website then "remembers" the information when it is called up again. To summarize: A website recognizes who is visiting it by means of the cookie and can thus adapt to user needs. It can also ensure that your shopping cart does not get lost, for example.

How dangerous are cookies?

Cookies are primarily stored on the client side (in the browser). However, website operators also use so-called third-party cookies. These are usually used unnoticed by third parties and collect information about users' surfing behavior. This information helps website operators to compile statistics about surfing behavior and user profiles and is an important part of online marketing. However, cookies, which are so useful, get a sour taste due to "spying" on the part of website operators. Data protectionists see them as the main cause of a "transparent user". But the "dangerous" data, is actually the data they enter themselves. A cookie cannot identify sensitive data, such as e-mail addresses, as long as you have not entered them via a web form. Since the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) came into force in May 2018, there has been more transparency in dealing with cookies. Some users are probably only aware of the existence of cookies since their use must be actively confirmed by click on every website.

Options in dealing with cookies
Cookies can be managed in most browser settings themselves.

In most popular browsers, you can manage cookies yourself. For example, delete existing cookies or disable their collection. However, the latter is usually not recommended, since cookies primarily make our lives easier. However, it is always advisable to critically question what information we reveal about ourselves. In most cases, you can also block certain information in the browser settings. How you proceed with cookies, however, naturally depends on your surfing behavior and your personal interest in data protection.

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Interesting facts about HTTP

HTTP - The simple transmission protocol

An important promise we make with our Tecomon® technology is future-proof connectivity. By using the HTTP standard, we offer high compatibility. But what is HTTP?

When you look at a website address, it says http:// in front. HTTP stands for "Hypertext Transfer Protocol." Without the protocol you would not be able to access a web page, because the most important use of HTTP is to display web pages. So, together with other building blocks, HTTP forms the basis for the World Wide Web (www.).

How does HTTP work?

HTTP is a so-called client-server principle. To access a website, the browser (client) sends a request (HTTP request) to the server. The server then searches for the appropriate file using the URL. After it has found the file, the server processes the request with a response message and sends the file to the browser. Your browser thus communicates with the web server via HTTP.

In very simplified terms, the user types a URL into the browser. The browser then asks the server for the file. The server then sends the desired file back as a response and the browser can display the web page.

Schematische Darstellung der Funktionsweise des http-Protokolls
Illustration of how HTTP works

In our explanation, it is assumed that the server always returns a file. However, this is not true. It does not find the right file for every URL and may have to return an error. The most known error is "404 Not Found". This tells the client that the file it is looking for does not exist. The reason for this can be typing errors in the URL or outdated links.

Application of HTTP

Originally, the HTTP protocol was used to request documents from a web server. Today there are numerous other uses. All kinds of media, such as images and videos, can be requested through the protocol. HTTP is also used to load updates, access databases or for machine-to-machine communication.

Difference to HTTPS

HTTPS stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure. It is the encrypted variant of the HTTP protocol. HTTPS was therefore developed to make the web and data exchange more anonymous and secure. HTTP is a stateless protocol that does not store any session information. Browsers thus constantly receive new copies of the web pages from the servers.  In addition to HTTPS, there are other security standards that we also work with at Tecomon®. Examples of these are SSL and TLS.

Your head is buzzing with technical terms and you are wondering what is behind all the other terms like HTML, URL, SSL and TLS? Then stay tuned. We regularly provide you with knowledge and help you find your way through the jungle of technology.

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Interesting facts about QR codes

QR Code - The intelligent digital pattern

QR codes are the elementary building blocks of our Tecomon® technology. But what is actually behind the black and white cube pattern and what are they used for?

Any information can be embedded in QR codes. The process was invented in 1994 by Masahiro Hara and his team at the car manufacturer Denso in Japan to mark automotive components.

Hand die Handy hält und QR-Code scannt, QR-Code führt zu Tecomon Webesite

What does the abbreviation QR stand for?

QR stands for Quick Response. The name of the QR code comes from its function. It facilitates the retrieval of information and enables a quick response.

How do QR codes work?

QR codes consist of a square mesh of black and white dots and lines. They belong to the 2D barcodes. This means that the dots containing the encoded information can be read both horizontally and vertically. QR codes can therefore represent several thousand characters. Three out of four corners contain a square, which the scanner uses for orientation. This means that QR codes are read correctly regardless of their orientation.

Did you also know that QR codes contain error compensation? Thanks to this, the codes are still readable even if 30% of the graphic is destroyed.

Where are QR codes scanned most?

The market research platform Appinio conducted a survey on the use of QR codes in spring 2020. The survey revealed that around half of respondents have already scanned QR codes on packaging. In second place are cash register receipts (38%), closely followed by advertising posters (35%) and magazines (34%). But what information behind the QR codes are consumers interested in? Most often, respondents scan the codes to get shopping coupons (41%) or to participate in cash-back programs (41%). As many as 41% of respondents use QR codes to get more information about products.

Colorful variety

Whether moss green, indigo or fire red - did you know that QR codes don't necessarily have to be black and white? To be readable by scanners, the only thing that needs to be right is the contrast between light and dark. So you can choose from any colors and design your QR code individually.

QR-Code zur LinkedIn Seite von Tecomon

Let´s scan the QR code above and find out what information is hidden behind it.

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